In collaboration with Payame Noor University and Scientific Association of Sports Management of Iran

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Associate professor of Sport Management, Razi University of Kermanshah

2 Ph.D. student in Sport Management, Mazandaran University

3 Ph.D. student in Sport Management, Tabriz University


The purpose of this study was to test the psychological, social and environmental factors in the prediction of physical activity among a random sample of female students, secondary school education in the city of Urmia. Research, cross-survey, based on SEM. The sample consisted of 307 students from first to third high school class. To explore the possible relationship of the four questionnaires, environment variables, psychological and social activities, health, teenage girls, was used, Reliability, through using, Cronbach's alpha was 83/0. Data Analysis was performed through using correlation test structural equation analysis. The test showed that the proposed model, the fit is acceptable, and can be used in future research. It was also noted that all environmental variables, social and emotional, with mutual solidarity, and physical activity, have a meaningful relationship. Accordingly, access to appropriate environmental conditions, friendly support of physical activity, and a sense of self-efficacy for physical activity, are of significant determinants of physical activity in leisure time of teenage girls. Hence, intervention programs should be increased based on environmental opportunities for physical activity, group-center physical activity preparation, and the use of the increased sense of self-efficacy.


-      احسانی، محمد؛ کوزه چیان، هاشم؛ کشگر، سارا (1389). «بررسی و تجزیه و تحلیل عوامل بازدارنده و میزان مشارکت زنان شهر تهران در فعالیت های ورزش تفریحی». پژوهش در علوم ورزشی، شماره 5 (17)، صص63-87.
-      انور الخولی، امین (1381). ورزش و جامعه، ترجمه حمیدرضا شیخی. انتشارات سمت.
-      پارسامهر، مهربان؛ زارع شاه آبادی، اکبر (1387). «بررسی نقش فواید ادراک شده بر مشارکت بانوان جوان در فعالیتهای بدنی (مطالعه موردی: بانوان شهر یزد)». المپیک، 16 (پیاپی 41)، صص7-16.
-      پیراسته، اشرف؛ حیدرنیا، علیرضا؛ فقیه زاده، سقراط (1386). «ساخت و اعتبار یابی مقیاس‏های سنجش عوامل روانی اجتماعی مؤثر بر فعالیت جسمانی دختران دبیرستانی منطقه 10 شهر تهران». مجله علمی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ایلام، دوره پانزدهم، شماره چهارم، صص 39-47.
-      محرم زاده، مهرداد؛ قهرمانی، جعفر؛ سعیدی، شیدا (1392). «بررسی عوامل بازدارنده موثر بر میزان شرکت معلمان زن مقاطع سه گانه تحصیلی در فعالیت های ورزشی شهر مرند». پژوهش‌های کاربردی در مدیریت ورزشی، دورة2، شمارة 2 (6پیاپی ). صص 57-66.
-      میرغفوری، سیدحبیب اله؛ صیادی تورانلو، حسین؛ میرفخرالدینی، سیدحیدر (1388). «بررسی و تحلیل مسایل و مشکلات موثر بر مشارکت زنان در فعالیت های ورزشی با رویکرد MCDM (مطالعه موردی: دختران دانشجوی دانشگاه یزد)». مدیریت ورزشی (حرکت)، (1)، صص83-100.
-      نادریان جهرمی، مسعود؛ هاشمی، هاجر (1388). «عوامل بازدارنده مشارکت ورزشی زنان کارمند شهراصفهان». مطالعات مدیریت ورزشی، سال ششم. شماره 23، صص 150-137.
-      نقدی، اسداله؛ بلالی، اسماعیل؛ پروین، ایمانی(1390). «موانع فرهنگی- اجتماعی مشارکت زنان در فعالیت‏های ورزشی». زن در توسعه و سیاست (پژوهش زنان، 9سال نهم، شماره (32 پیاپی)، صص 24-31.
-      Bakhtari Aghdam, T. et al.(2013). “Explaining the Role of Personal, Social and Physical Environment Factors on Employed Women's Physical Activity: A Structural Equation Analysis”. Global Journal of Health Science; Vol. 5, No. 4.
-      Bandura, A. (1997). “Cognitive processes in mediatingbehavioral change”. Journal of personality and social psychology, 35, 125-139.
-      Baerrel, S. (2000) Feminist Theories Of Sport, London, Sage.
-      Bauman,A., & Smith,B. (1999). “Geographical influences upon physical activity participation”: Evidence of a ‘coastal effect’. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 23(3), 322–324.
-      Bolívar, J., Daponte, A., Rodríguez, M., & Sánchez, J. (2010). “The Influence of Individual, Social and Physical Environment Factors on Physical Activity in the Adult Population in Andalusia”, Spain. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 7, 60-77.
-      Beets, M.W., Vogel, R., Forlaw, L., Pitetti, K.H., & Cardinal, B.J. (2006). “Social support and youth physical activity: The role of provider and type”. American Journal of Health Behavior, 30(3), 278-289.
-      Crimi, K. Hensley, H. D. Finn, K.J.(2009). Psychosocial Correlates of Physical Activity in “Children and Adolescents in a Rural Community setting”. International Journal of Exercise Science: Vol. 2: 13,309-320.
-      Dwyer, J.J.,Allison, K.R., Makin, S.(1998). “Internal structure of a measure of self-efficacy in physical activity among high school students”. Social science medicine; 46(9): 1275-82.
-      Dishman, R.K. (2009). Predicting and changing exercise and physical activity: What’s practical and what’s not. In: Quinn H, Gauvin L, Wall A, editors. Toward active living. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics. 97-106.
-      Ding D, Sallis JF, Kerr J, Lee S, Rosenberg DE. (2011). “Neighborhood environment and physical activity among youth - A review”. Am J Prev Med, 41(4):442–455.
-      Duncan MJ, Spence JC, Mummery WK (2005). “Perceived environment and physical activity: a meta-analysis of selected environmental characteristics”. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act, 2:11, p,1-9.
-      Eitzen DS, Sage GH. (1982). “Sociology of American Sport. Dubique, Iowa; WC Brown Co”. Publishers. 4:21, p,32-41
-      Humpel N, Owen N, Leslie E. (2002). “Environmental factors associated with adults' participation in physical activity”. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 22:188-199.
-      Kirkcaldy BD, Shephad RJ, Siefen RG.(2002). The relationship between physical activity and “self image and problem behavior among adolescent”. Soc Psychiatry Psychaiatr Epidemiol 2002; 37(11): 544-50.
-      Knox,P. (1978). “The intraurban ecology of primary medical care: Patterns of accessibility and their policy implications”. Environment and Planning, 10,415–435.
-      Linenger,J. M., Chesson,C. V., & Nice, D. S. (1991). “Physical fitness gains following simple environmental change”. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 7(5),298–310.
-      Loy JW, Mcpherson BD, Kenyon GS. (1989). Sport and Social Systems. Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.
-      Mahon NE, Yarcheski TJ, Yarcheski A.(2002). “The revised personal lifestyle questionnaire for early adolescents”. West J Nurs Research 2002; 25(5):547-53
-      Medrich EA, Roizen JA, Rubin V, Buckley S. (1982). The Serious Business of Growing Up. A Study of Children’s Lives Outside School. Berkeley, C.A.: University of California Press.
-      Orunaboka, T. T. Deemua, A. G. (2011) An Analysis of Peer Groups Influence on Sports Involvement of Female Athletes in Rivers State Secondary Schools, Nigeria. Int J Edu Sci, 3(1): 9-14.
-      Puskar K, Murnford K, Serikal S.(1999) Health concern and risk behavior of rural adolescent. J Community Health Nurs 1999; 16(2):109-19.
-      Levers LCE, Burant C, Drotar D. (2003). “Social support, knowledge, and self-efficacy as correlates of osteoporosis preventive behaviors among preadolescent females”. J Pediatr Psychol 2003; 28(5):335-45.
-      Sadeghzadeh, M. H. Maghami, M. (2012). “Study and analysis of inhibitory factors of female students for participation in recreational sport activities”. European Journal of Experimental Biology, 2012, 2 (4):1062-1070.
-      Sallis,J. F.,Hovell, M. F.,Hofstetter ,C. R.,Elder,J. P., Hackley,M., Caspersen, C. J., & Powell,K. E. (1990). “Distance between home and exercise facilities related to frequency of exercise among San Diego residents”. Public Health Reports, 105(2),179–185.
-      Sallis JF, Patrick K, Frank E, Pratt M, Wechsler H, Galuska D. (2000). “Interventions in health care settings to promote healthful eating and physical activity in children and adolescents”. Prev Med; 31(2):112-20.
-      Wallace S, Buckworth J, Kirby T, Sherman WM. (2000). “Characteristics of exercise behavior among college students application of social cognitive theory to predicating stage of change”. Prev Med 2000; 31(6):494-505.
-      Sherwood, N.E, et all. (2004). “Measurement characteristics of activity-related psychosocial measures in 8- to10-year-old African-American girls in the Girls Health Enrichment Multisite Study (GEMS)”.Preventive Medicine. 38 Suppl: 2004; S60-8.
-      Teraslinna,P.,Partanen,T.,Koskela,A., & Oja,P. (1969). “Characteristics affecting willing of executives to participate in an activity program aimed at coronary heart disease prevention”. Journal of Sports Medicine, 9(4), 224–229.
-      Timperio, A. F. et al. (2013). “Direct and indirect associations between the family physical activity environment and sports participation among 10–12 year-old European children: testing the EnRG framework in the ENERGY project”. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, doi:10.1186/1479-5868-10-15.
-      Taymoori, P. Rhodes, R. E. Berry, T. R.( 2010) “Application of a social cognitive model in explaining physical activity in Iranian female adolescents”. Health Education Research, Vol.25 no.2, p, 257–267.
-      Timperio, A. F. et al. (2013). “Direct and indirect associations between the family physical activity environment and sports participation among 10–12 year-old European children: testing the EnRG framework in the ENERGY project”. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, doi:10.1186/1479-5868-10-15.
-      US Department of Health and Human Services (1996) Physical Activity and Health: a report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, US: Centers for Disease Control.
-      van der Horst, Klazine· “Oenema, Anke· te Velde, Saskia J.(2010). Brug, Johannes To examine the associations of perceived physical environmental factors with adolescent sports participation?” Public Health Nutrition: 13(10A), 1746–1754.
-      Wallace S, Buckworth J, Kirby T, Sherman WM.(2000). “Characteristics of exercise behavior among college students application of social cognitive theory to predicating stage of change”. Prev Med; 31(6):494-505.
-      Williams, R. A. (2010). “Psychosocial Factors and Physical Activity Among Black Adolescent Females”. A Dissertation Submitted to The University of North Carolina at Greensboro for the Degree Doctor of Education
-      Warburton ER, Whitney N, Bredin SD.(2006) Health benefits of physical activity: the evidence. CMAJ 2006; 174(6): 801-9.